For most users of distros, the distro bug system is the first line of interaction when something kernel related breaks on their system. This makes sense: the kernel most users are using is packaged by a distro so the maintainers should be the first ones to take a look at the problem. Inevitably though, something will arise such that the solution cannot come from the distro maintainers and must come from the greater kernel community. Sometimes the distro maintainers can do the follow up but there may be a request for the bug reporter or reproducer to contact the kernel mailing list directly. Now everything depends on how successful the person is in communicating with LKML.
The Linux Kernel Mailing List (LKML) has a somewhat deserved reputation for being difficult to work with. There are plenty of stories out there of kernel developers getting into nasty arguments that devolve into personal attacks (I don't feel like linking to anything specific here, google will find stories). A common response I've heard before is "oh that only happens with old timers, it doesn't happen to new people". That's a horrbile statement to make. How is that supposed to encourage people to not only contribute but keep contributing and become old timers? The correct response should be "Toxic behavior should not be tolerated towards anyone". There has been a notable push to improve things for everyone with things like the Code of Conflict. From my personal experience, most interactions with the kernel community have been without flames and personal attacks. People give constructive technical feedback without tearing people down. Positive experiences will never erase history or any future bad behavior that may occur though. I believe the kernel community is moving in the right direction though and I hope to continue working in it to make it better. (Edit 10/6: I would be remiss if I didn't link to this blog post talking about leaving because of LKML culture)
More common than a flame is for messages to be ignored. From personal experience this is even more frustrating than a "No you're wrong". Apart from the usual 'write a good bug report' tips, there are several common issues I see that can contribute to no response or a bad response (I've been guilty of most of these at one time or another)
Using bugzilla.kernel.org instead of the mailing list: This isn't strictly the mailing list but it's a related problem I've seen. bugzilla.kernel.org is nice but some maintainers look at it more than others. In general if you want a response it's usually more effective to go directly on the mailing list
Not doing your homework: The kernel community should be understanding of new people who are contributing but the flip side of that is making sure the contributions are the best they can be. See if your question has been asked on the mailing list before. If it has but didn't get an acceptable response, it's okay to ask again but cite the previous ask. Review SubmitChecklist. Double check that your patch actually compiles. It's okay if it isn't perfect but make your best effort.
Sending to a mailing list only and not an actual person: LKML is a very high traffic mailing list. Most people don't read every message that comes through. Sending a message just to LKML is not likely to get a response. At the very least, find an appropriate subsystem mailing list and maintainer to send a question to. To get an idea on where to start, the kernel provides a script called
get_maintainer.pl. This takes a patch file as input or a file name with the
-fflag and will spit out mailing list and maintainer info. LKML will always be on there.
Sending to the wrong people - get_maintainer is great but it sometimes spits out information that's hard to make sense of. Example with e-mails redacted for spam purposes:
$ scripts/get_maintainer.pl -f mm/page_alloc.c Andrew Morton <akpm@XXX> (commit_signer:102/106=96%) Mel Gorman <mgorman@XXX> (commit_signer:33/106=31%,authored:15/106=14%,added_lines:440/1649=27%,removed_lines:173/1243=14%) Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@XXX> (commit_signer:31/106=29%,authored:19/106=18%,added_lines:374/1649=23%,removed_lines:346/1243=28%) Michal Hocko <mhocko@XXX> (commit_signer:21/106=20%) Joonsoo Kim <js1304@XXX> (commit_signer:18/106=17%,authored:16/106=15%,added_lines:258/1649=16%,removed_lines:149/1243=12%) Johannes Weiner <hannes@XXX> (authored:9/106=8%,added_lines:97/1649=6%,removed_lines:141/1243=11%) Alexander Duyck <alexander.h.duyck@XXX> (added_lines:98/1649=6%) Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@XXX> (removed_lines:169/1243=14%) email@example.com (open list:MEMORY MANAGEMENT) firstname.lastname@example.org (open list)
Here we have a list of people and linux-mm (subsystem mailing list) and LKML.
Are all these people maintainers? No, get_maintainer tries to be clever and find other people who have last touched the file. Unless it says MAINTAINER or SUPPORTER you should not assume that get_maintainer has spit out an actual maintainer. Does that mean they want to review your patch or answer your question? Maybe or maybe not. If they don't have a high percentage of commits, they may have done cleanup or contributed something minor. They are probably not a good person to add.
Another distinction to make is subsystem maintainer vs. driver maintainer. A driver maintainer is responsible for one or more specific driver files of a specific subsystem. The subsystem maintainer is responsible for the overall architecture and generic parts of a subsystem. If you are fixing a driver it is always good to e-mail the driver maintainer and the subsystem maintainer. In this sample, someone is listed as
MEDIA DRIVERmaintainer (driver maintainer) and someone else is listed as
MEDIA INPUT INFRASTRUCTUREmaintainer (subsystem maintainer):
$ scripts/get_maintainer.pl -f drivers/media/dvb-frontends/si2168.c Antti Palosaari <crope@XXX> (maintainer:SI2168 MEDIA DRIVER) Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@XXX> (maintainer:MEDIA INPUT INFRASTRUCTURE (V4L/DVB)) email@example.com (open list:SI2168 MEDIA DRIVER) firstname.lastname@example.org (open list)
I often use
get_maintainer.plto get a list of potential people and then filter it down more by looking at
git blame. A kernel commit may look something like:
From: Kozlov Sergey <serjk@XXX> Date: Tue, 28 Jul 2015 11:33:02 -0300 Subject: [media] lnbh25: LNBH25 SEC controller driver Add DVB SEC frontend driver for STM LNBH25PQR chip. [mchehab@XXX: fix merge conflict: fe_sec_voltage_t should not be used in kernelspace anymore. instead, it should use enum fe_sec_voltage] Signed-off-by: Kozlov Sergey <serjk@XXX> Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mchehab@XXX>
The from indicates who actually authored the patch. The Signed-off-by is a licence assertion made by the author but the maintainer may also add that as well. In general, if you see someone who is consistently adding their Signed-off-by on others patches it's a good assumption they have some kind of maintainer responsibility and are a good candidate to e-mail if get_maintainer did not already spit them out.
git blameis useful if you have a large or generic file and want to change something in a certain area. Google has lots of tutorials about using git blame to find out who changed a specific part of a file. Be careful about the dates though; if the area hasn't been updated in over a year check in other ways (git log) to see if it makes sense to e-mail.
Don't under estimate the value of going through the e-mail archives as well. If you see someone consistently reviewing or acking patches for a subsystem or driver, they can be a good person to e-mail even if they aren't a maintainer.
If I'm sending to subsystem for the first time, my e-mail list usually includes
- All people listed as actual maintainers from get_maintainer.pl
- All mailing lists from get_maintainer.pl (LKML is always included, you should always make sure it gets CCed)
- If I only have a subsystem maintainer and not a driver maintainer, I look for up to 3 people who have contributed more than one patch or have been active on the mailing list.
Sending to only people and not mailing lists: In almost no cases should you e-mail someone privately about a bug or patch. This is not how the kernel community works and it disrupts the flow to try and contact maintainers privately. The limited exception might be security bugs which have their own process