The kernel has the responsibility of setting up virtual to physical mappings for the system. This is something userspace processes take for granted and don’t really think about. Most kernel drivers don’t think about this either, except when it matters. Yes, that’s delightfully vague and useless. One of the most common lines of code you will see in the kernel is an allocation from kmalloc:

struct foo *p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);

There are assumptions that can be made about a pointer returned from kmalloc1. The pointer is a virtual address. This sounds obvious but it’s important to keep in mind what that actually means. A pointer returned from kmalloc is going to be linearly mapped in the page tables. This means the physical address of a linear virtual address can be found by doing simple arithmetic. A pointer returned from kmalloc is going to be physically contiguous. Contrast that with vmalloc:

void *p = vmalloc(SZ_512K);

The virtual address returned from vmalloc is going to be virtually contiguous but physically discontiguous. The physical pages that are backing vmalloc have no relation to the virtual address. Instead of simple arithmetic to get the physical address, you have to walk the page table to get the physical address for a particular PAGE_SIZE.

Both vmalloc and kmalloc have their uses. kmalloc is generally preferred as the overhead is lower. The linear mapping is set up at boot time and generally not adjusted. vmalloc is allocated and mapped and mapped at run time. Because kmalloc is physically contiguous, it’s subject to fragmentation. As allocation size goes up, it may be necessary to switch to vmalloc for the allocation to succeed.

Unexpected behavior happens if you pass a vmalloc address to an API that’s not expecting it. Unexpected really means unexpected here. arm64 will happily take a non-linear address and perform a linear translation on it. What you get back may be a physical address but it has no relation to the virtual address you passed in. There are some debug options to catch bad uses of the API and BUG out, but those are expensive and not commonly turned on.

In conclusion, know what type of memory you are allocating and where it can be used. Don’t blindly call virt_to_phys on random pointers unless you like debugging subtle problems.

here. Most of this should hold for other architectures but I learn something new and exciting every day.

  1. I’m mostly going to be talking about x86 and arm64 with CONFIG_MMU