One of the many areas that the kernel self protection project looks at is making sure kernel developers are using APIs correctly and safely. The string APIs, in particular string copying APIs, seem to be one area that gets developers confused. Strings in C aren’t real1 in that there isn’t a proper string type. For the purposes of this discussion, a C string is an array of characters with a terminating NUL (\0) character.

One of the obvious operations a programmer would want to do is copy a string. There’s an API strcpy to do so:

char *strcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

From the man page:

   The  strcpy()  function  copies the string pointed to by src, including
   the terminating null byte ('\0'), to the buffer  pointed  to  by  dest.
   The  strings  may  not overlap, and the destination string dest must be
   large enough to receive the copy.  Beware  of  buffer  overruns!   (See

That last sentence is important and the source of numerous bugs. Because C strings don’t have an inherent length associated with them, it’s up to the programmer to know/check the length everywhere. Otherwise, you may end up copying bytes outside the dst buffer. This is pretty annoying and error prone so there’s another API, strncpy

char *strncpy(char *dest, const char *src, size_t n);

This one takes a length parameter so it’s getting better. From the man page:

   The  strncpy()  function is similar, except that at most n bytes of src
   are copied.  Warning: If there is no null byte among the first n  bytes
   of src, the string placed in dest will not be null-terminated.

   If  the  length of src is less than n, strncpy() writes additional null
   bytes to dest to ensure that a total of n bytes are written.

That last sentence in the first paragraph is, again, important. If your src string is greater than n your buffer will not be NUL terminated. You may not have written beyond the buffer but the next time you access the string at dst C will happily look in the next memory area until it sees a NUL character. It’s also pretty easy to run into some anti-patterns with strncpy. If you don’t specify the bound on n correctly, it’s possible to overrun the buffer. If your bound for n is a function of your src string, you haven’t solved anything. gcc has started to warn on some of these issues which is helpful (if annoying to clean up).

There’s also strlcpy:

 size_t strlcpy(char *dst, const char *src, size_t size);

I couldn’t quite find the full history but this one seems to be derived from BSD. From the kernel’s lib/string.c:

    Compatible with ``*BSD``: the result is always a valid
    NUL-terminated string that fits in the buffer (unless,
    of course, the buffer size is zero). It does not pad
    out the result like strncpy() does.

So strlcpy will solve the truncation issue but will not pad the buffer. The padding may or may not be behavior that’s wanted. strlcpy in the kernel also has the implementation detail of calling strlen(src) which means that you will always be reading the entire string length even if you only specify a subset of the string to be copied. This shouldn’t matter for most uses but there may be cases which could result in reading memory unexpectedly if src is not NUL terminated.

There’s also strscpy which was introduced in 2015 and is designed to be a combination of both strcpy and strlcpy. This was not without controversy but today the API is frequently preferred over either strncpy or strlcpy.

More important than a general rule of “You should always use strscpy” is to make sure you understand what all the APIs do. There may be cases where it is appropriate to just use strcpy or you want the behavior of strncpy or strlcpy. If you’re doing something unusual, please document your code for the benefit of others.

  1. C strings are about as real as Linux containers.